Arguing in favor of a natural occurring illness includes Dr. James Edwards who makes the case for a generic illness based on how various skin rashes and problems would have been lumped into the category of Hansen's Disease (Leprosy). However, in Luke 6:18, this physician clearly distinguishes between who were healed of diseases and those troubled with unclean spirits (6:18; 7:21; Acts 5:16; 8:6-8; 19:12). Likewise, he does not mention spirit in 4:38, 40; and specifically mentions it in Luke 8 and 9 and in Acts 16. One can also point to verse 16 in which Jesus identifies the one bound this woman as Satan.
It seems to this preacher that Luke was observant enough to tell the difference between an illness or sickness and something that is fueled by spiritual/demonic forces.
What is 'necessary' and what one 'ought' do is a key component for this synagogue ruler and Jesus. In Greek, the verb is a very simple δεί (dei). The synagogue leader says, "“There are six days in which work ought to be done." (v.14). Jesus immediately counters with "ought not this woman, a daughter of Abraham whom Satan bound for eighteen years be loosed from this bond on the Sabbath day?" (v.16)
In response to her freedom, this woman begins praising God and continues to do so as this ruler and Jesus exchange words. The phrase used by Mark occurs eight times but only once in Matthew and Mark (Edwards). Praise is a hallmark of his gospel and of our response to God’s work
Jesus takes the initiative with this forlorn woman, however, and emphatically so: he saw her, summoned her, and said to her, “Woman, you are set free from your infirmity” (v. 12). His pronouncement…means “you have been released.” The woman’s release is thus spoken of as an already accomplished condition effected by the redemptive and liberating word of Jesus. The passive…attributes the action to God. This pronouncement is therefore christologically significant, for in making it, Jesus presumes to stand in the place of God. (Edwards)
By the Second Temple period, the Sabbath had acquired a sacred and central status in Judaism.4 The Sabbath was regarded as a day in which one ceased from all manner of work. In carving out the parameters of this divinely mandated rest, Jews in the Second Temple period sought to draw upon the same resources they always had when faced with the need to update and expand ancient Israelite law. Thus, Jews turned to their sacred scriptures and the manifold presentations of the Sabbath and its ritual obligations.
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